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Sri Lanka – The Ultimate Home of Aviators (Migratory Birds of Sri Lanka)

Sri Lanka – The Ultimate Home of Aviators

(Migratory Birds of Sri Lanka)

Sri Lanka – The Ultimate Home of Aviators

(Migratory Birds of Sri Lanka)

Sri Lanka – The Ultimate Home of Aviators

(Migratory Birds of Sri Lanka)

Birds with their colourful plumage and unparalleled ability to fly, always attract the attention of one and all. Whether you are a keen bird watcher or not, you can’t help but notice how these creatures are so similar yet so different physiologically and behaviourally. It is indeed a marvel of mother nature.

Among these delightful creatures are the ones who fly to different destinations to spend different seasons of the year. Birds with such behavioural patterns are known as migratory birds. 

Migratory birds are birds that travel long distances from Winter grounds to Breeding grounds at regular time intervals. This is a natural phenomenon which occurs due to their inability to survive the Winter periods in a given habitat due to the extreme weather conditions and lack of food. Avoiding the onslaught of predators, avoiding spreading of diseases and breeding can be given as other reasons as to why birds migrate. As a result, migratory birds travel long distances in search of the best ecological conditions and favourable habitats. 

Being a tropical island, abundant with food makes Sri Lanka a favourable destination for migratory birds throughout the year. The favourable temperate climate and the abundance of wild habitats make Sri Lanka an ideal destination for migratory birds.

Among the numerous bird species that have been recorded in Sri Lanka, 10 migratory birds are documented here.


1.      Greater Flamingo – Phoenicopterus roseus

Greater Flamingo is the largest of all the species in the Flamingo family. The adult male weighs about 3.6 kg and is around 1.5 m in height. These pinkish coloured birds can be observed in flocks of hundreds and sometimes thousands in Jaffna, Mannar and Bundala salterns areas of Sri Lanka from August to April. Bundala National Park is famous among the bird watchers for its large Flamingo population during the Winter season.

They feed mainly on herbs, vegetables and small aquatic animals. During Winter, Greater Flamingos in Asia migrate to warmer climates. Increase of Global Warming has shortened their migrating patterns drastically as they don’t migrate if the season is mild.


2.      Garganey - Anas querquedula

Garganey is the most abundant of the migratory ducks in Sri Lanka. The adult male weighs about 0.4 kg and is around 40 cm in height. These blackish brown ducks are very commonly observed during the cold periods (Winter) in coastal lagoons, large tanks and marshes of dry lowlands. Sightings of these birds have been recorded from Yala and Wilpattu National Parks. They feed mainly on grain (rice), insects, crustaceans and mollusks.

During day time they float on water far away from the shore in close flocks while they feed during the night. Habitat loss form wetland drainage, climatic change and human disturbance due to overharvesting from hunting and lead poisoning are some of the threats they face leading to record population decline.


3.      Western Reef Egret / Western Reef Heron - Egretta gularis

A regular Winter migrant to the island, this species is of 2 former subspecies of the Little Egret and is now treated as a single species. The adult male is around 65 cm in length. They are most commonly sighted int the coastal lagoons, mangroves, estuaries and shores mainly in North. They are usually spotted from April to August and at the end of May in Chilaw.

They eat fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. In coastal areas, they regularly feed on mudskippers. The species occur in several plumage forms, dark morph with dark ashy grey plumage, pale morph with pure white plumage and white plumage with grey patches. They live individually or as pairs.


4.      Pacific Golden Plover – Pluvialis fulva

A common Winter visitor to the island, it is commonly sighted in the dry zone of the island. The adult male weighs about 0.15 kg and is around 30 cm in length. Fulva in Latin refers to a Tawny colour while the bird is black with a dark rump. Females are duller in colour. They are most commonly sighted in lowland lagoons, marshes, grasslands adjoining large water bodies, mudflats, dry paddy fields, etc. They mainly feed on insects (grass hoppers, beetles), crustaceans and worms. They are found in small to large flocks.

Although they aren’t threatened at present, commercialized exploitation and habitat loss are two main problems faced by these species.


5.      Pin-tailed SnipeGallinago stenura

Commonly sighted in the island during Winter,

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